need farm workers
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The Bolshevik Revolution of
1917 lead by Vladimir Ilich Lenin was so successful that soon
it offered the luxury of relying on a unique party to govern
the great country, which was now property of the Soviets.
Five years later, following the example set forth by the Soviets,
Benito Mussolini used the Fascist Party to implement the dictatorship
in Italy. Two years later, Adolf Hitler in his book "My
Struggle" outlined the possibilities of such a great party
to the Italian in order to destroy the Republic of Weimar.
The emergence of the German National Socialist Party, which urged
its followers to "think with their blood," was an outcome
of Hitler's sermons which were at that time capable of exciting
large crowds who enjoyed hearing that the Germans were a special
race, the Aryan race.
The relationships of the Fascist regimes were established in
1936 with the emergence of the Axis Powers consisting of Berlin
and Rome, which were later joined by the Japanese regime, which
by that time had increased its enmity with England and the United
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, forced the Axis
Powers of Germany and Italy to declare war on the United States
which in turn was forced to ally itself with the young Soviet
Union and the Western European powers. All of these events contributed
to the development of World War II.
By 1942, nothing was definite. The brutal battles between the
rival factions remained bloodier than ever. The United States
initiated an enormous rearmament program which materially consumed
the country's entire manual labor force. President Franklin Delano
Roosevelt, informed the United States Congress of the necessity
of implementing a military infrastructure capable of producing
up to 50 thousand airplanes each year.
At the height of its production between 1943 and 1944 the United
States was building a ship a day and an airplane every five minutes.
During six years of war, the United States produced 87 thousand
tanks, 296 thousand fighter planes, 315 thousand pieces of artillery
and mortar shells, two- million 434 thousand trucks and 53 million
tons of maritime pieces (ships, boats, submarines, etc).
For the size of this war production, the United States utilized
all of its available resources. Men and women of all ages worked
day and night in factories and the healthiest and strongest young
people were sent to the front lines.
In this context of conflict of war, in which the destiny of humanity
was at stake, is when the Mexican laborers made their appearance.
On August 4, 1942 the governments of the United States and Mexico
signed a treaty for the recruitment and employment of Mexican
citizens in order to alleviate the shortages of manual labor
in the agricultural fields and to help maintain the American
The predominant elements of the prevalent situation of 1942 which
culminated with the signing of the Bracero Treaty were reported
by Ernesto Galarza, the Mexican consulate official assigned to
Washington D.C., in the following manner:
"Constant demand of agricultural workers anticipating the
production for the war; the opinion expressed by the bosses that
local and national agricultural manual labor would be reduced
by the recruitments in the military and in other industries;
the traditional opinion established in the south of Mexico is
a natural reserve of agricultural manual labor and railroad maintenance;
Mexico's desire to cooperate in the American's war effort by
providing manual labor; the increasingly difficult circumstances
of the Mexican working class in the cities and rural communities
in regards to the scarcity of nourishment, increasing price rates
and other economic overturnings; and Mexican workers' hope of
earning better wages in the United States than in Mexico..."
The Bracero Treaty officially ended on May 30, 1963 but the agricultural
workers continued coming into the United States until 1964. Soon
after, the farmworkers who had dedicated their best efforts during
hard times for the United States, were now being thrown out of
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